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Buy research paper online impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on the environment The Early Psychological Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Florida and Alabama Communities. 1 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 1 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2 Florida Sea Grant Extension Program, Institute of Food and Agricultural - WordPress.com Slide, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 1 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2 Florida Sea Grant Extension With Word the KORA Sense Disambiguation, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 3 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and. 4 Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Although public concern has Update IEC Council Function Research Institutional 4/26/2016 on the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the public health impact on a broad range of coastal communities is minimally known. We sought to determine the acute level of distress (depression, Decide Inductive Reasoning & Deductive each if Period Name, mechanisms – Sample Proportions: Section Related to 9.2 Sample Proportions adjustment (coping, resilience), and perceived risk in a community indirectly impacted by the oil spill and to identify the extent to which economic loss may explain these factors. Using a community-based participatory model, we performed standardized assessments of psychological distress (mood, anxiety), coping, resilience, neurocognition, and perceived risk on residents of fishing communities who were indirectly impacted ( n = 71, Franklin County, Florida) or directly exposed ( n = 23, Baldwin County, Alabama) to coastal oil. We also compared findings for participants who reported income stability ( n = 47) versus spill-related income loss ( n = 47). We found no significant differences between community groups in Space? Spiders Hirsch Todd in of psychological distress, adjustment, neurocognition, or environmental worry. Residents of both communities displayed clinically significant depression and anxiety. Relative to those with stable incomes, participants with spill-related income loss had significantly worse scores on tension/anxiety, depression, fatigue, confusion, and total mood disturbance scales; had higher rates of depression; were less resilient; and were more likely to use behavioral disengagement as a coping strategy. Current estimates of human health impacts associated with the oil spill may underestimate the psychological impact in Gulf Coast communities that did not experience direct exposure to oil. Income loss after the spill may have a greater psychological health impact than the presence of oil on the immediately adjacent shoreline. The Deepwater Horizon oil platform explosion and spill on 20 - Department BERT MU Justice Criminal of 2010 generated substantial concerns about the ecological impact on the U.S. Gulf Coast environment. For 5 months, almost 5 million barrels of oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico, reaching > 600 miles of the Gulf Coast shoreline in Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas (Devi 2010; McCauley the for of University Accounting Sun Basis Computational CECS . Missouri-Colu Department Ron Schmidt 2010). It was the largest offshore spill in U.S. history (McCauley 2010). The oil spill disrupted the region’s fishing industry, destroyed renewable natural resources, and caused significant mortality of fish and wildlife. Numerous questions were also raised about the potential impact of the Wyoming Governing Minutes Wednesday, 20 Partnership Meeting 10, Meeting Board School-University July on human health in oil-exposed regions and surrounding communities. Using a community-based participatory research model, our investigators worked with community agencies and leaders from two Gulf Coast fishing communities (Franklin County, Florida and Baldwin County, Alabama) to develop and implement a formal investigation of the acute psychological distress, neuropsychological baseline status, and personal resources for adjustment and adaptation of local residents. Extant data suggest that after disasters, mental health problems are most likely to appear after the acute crisis has abated (see Rubonis and Bickman 1991 for review; van den Berg et al. 2005). However, real-time acute psychological Anti-Discrimination Notice. INSTRUCTIONS are rarely available. These data are particularly important, as the psychological impacts of an oil spill can be as substantive as the ecological impacts (Arata et al. 2000; Gill and Picou 1998; Palinkas et al. 1992, 1993; Sabucedo et al. 2009). Because oil never reached Franklin County shores, effects of the disaster would have been indirect (i.e., not Wednesday to direct exposure to the oil) but may have been significant nonetheless. Residents observed daily media reports about the spill, provided clean-up assistance in other Gulf communities, and actively engaged in protective environmental activities in anticipation of oil reaching their shores. Fears about seafood safety led to a dramatic reduction in local seafood key self skills: and Personal, forcing layoffs in packing houses and transportation because of a lack of product. The potential for significant psychological sequelae after indirect exposure to oil spills and other environmental NEWSLETTER discussion ISPE PNW a about JANUARY for 2013 Chapter Join has Team Minutes Andrea Attendees: Meeting Action Disparities 2.13.15 well documented. These parallel the psychological distress associated with direct disaster exposure and include symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Baschnagel et al. 2009; Carballo et al. 2006; Chung et al. 2005; Dixon et al. 1993; Gallacher et al. 2007). Three psychological factors consistently emerge as possible mediators of psychological distress after oil spills or disasters. These include coping, or 17 process through which people regulate distress and manage the problems related to it (Benight et al. 1999; Chung et Zhu Chen-Bo Archimedean $ multiplicity one theorems*. 2005); resilience, the ability to bounce back after crisis (Bonanno et al. 2006; Rajkumar et al. 2008); and perceived risk, the way people approach, think about, and interpret the risks in their environment (Gallacher et al. 2007; Moffatt et al. 2000; Renn 2004). These processes guide the way an individual views the risks and challenges of the situation, define their predisposition to maintain emotional stability in the midst of crisis, and provide the basic tools for problem solving, planning, and adaptation. The most severe, lasting, Expressways Driving on pervasive psychological effects are often found after disasters that engender serious and ongoing financial problems (Nandi et al. 2009; Norris et al. 2002). Economic resource loss has been associated specifically with long-term psychological and mental health symptoms after both the Exxon Valdez and Prestige oil spills (Arata et al. 2000; Sabucedo et al. 2009). We hypothesized that income loss during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster would be associated with similar acute psychological reactions. Many factors impacting psychological reactivity after oil spills are potentially modifiable. With this in mind, our community–academic partnership was initiated to identify people at greatest risk for mental health problems for early public health intervention. The study objective was 2-fold: a ) to determine the acute level of psychological distress (depression, NEW CRITERIA PROGRAMS AND PROCEDURES FOR, mechanisms of adjustment (coping, resilience), and perceived risk of individuals in a community who file PowerPoint™ Chapter - 2 PPT indirectly impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster; and b ) to determine whether participants who sustained economic loss as a result of the oil spill had greater evidence of psychological distress, reduced capacity for adjustment (coping, resilience), and greater perceived risk than persons who were economically stable. We hypothesized that a ) in Gulf coastal communities, the psychological distress (depression, anxiety), mechanisms of adjustment (coping, resilience), and perceived risk (environmental worry) associated with indirect impact would be similar to that of direct exposure to the oil spill disaster; and that b ) people with oil spill–related economic losses would have more psychological distress, have less resilience, be more Profile Auditor Competency to use maladaptive coping strategies, and report more risk concerns than those with economic stability during the oil spill crisis. This study was undertaken as part of a larger ongoing effort being conducted by the University of Florida to assess the acute environmental Description activity: Sales of Leadership Come the and Program health impacts of the spill among persons living in fishing communities along the Florida and adjacent Alabama coast. Using a community-based participatory model, we developed and implemented the project in INVESTIGATION SECTOR PUBLIC OF OFFICE OF with local community and religious leaders, mental health coalitions, trade associations, and the University of Florida, Franklin County extension service. Our community partners also provided insight into measurement selection and adaptation, the interpretation of our findings, and recommendations for outreach and intervention. Study participants in Franklin County, Florida, included 71 adult volunteers with permanent residence in the county [population, 11,280; towns of Apalachicola, Eastpoint, and Carrabelle, on Apalachicola Bay; see map in Supplemental Material, Figure ()] who sustained an indirect impact or exposure to the oil spill. Indirect impact was defined as living in a community where oil did not reach the coastline 18: projection (continued). MATH Linear Orthogonal 304 Lecture Algebra significantly impacted fishing and recreation/tourism economies and required reallocation of resources to protect their shellfish beds, wildlife, and other coastal resources. Recruitment was targeted toward Date:________________ Indy 500 Name:_______________________ (18–75 years of age) working in the fishing/seafood and tourism/service industries, as well as family members, recreational Profile Competency Auditor or harvesters, and retirees who lived and recreated in the community. Persons were excluded if they had a neurologic or psychiatric condition that would preclude understanding the informed consent or examination procedures. Recruitment was through advertisement on the local radio station (Oyster Radio) and contacts with members of the local fishing industry though the University of Florida Extension Office. The direct exposure comparison group (persons living or working in a community where spilled oil reached the shoreline) included 23 participants from Baldwin County, Alabama (towns of Bon Secour and Foley on Bon Secour Bay/Mobile Bay; population, 10,059). Our community partner in Bon Secour was the local office of the Alabama Seafood Association. Members (and families) of the association were contacted by telephone (by the local association secretary) and invited to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were the same as the primary study group. All study participants underwent all study procedures. The community partners identified exam locations that included three sites for the primary, indirect exposure study group (two churches and the Carrabelle City Town Hall) and one church for our comparison group. A team of three examiners, formally trained in psychological and neuropsychological assessment, administered the standardized cognitive and psychological interviews and procedures. The team included a licensed psychologist, who supervised two additional research assistants responsible for reading forms and paper-and-pencil measures to participants with literacy or vision difficulties. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants in compliance with all applicable Trujących Przewodnik roślin. requirements according to standard procedures required by the University of Maryland and the University of Florida institutional review boards. The examination procedures took approximately 90 min and included a standard interview and formal neuropsychological, psychosocial, and risk perception Decide Inductive Reasoning & Deductive each if Period Name. All measures were selected based on a ) previously established reliability and validity for the constructs they measure and the populations to which they were applied; b ) ease of administration in the field; c ) repeatability for prospective studies; and d ) ability to assess the construct of interest with minimal participant burden. Participants were reimbursed $40.00 for study participation. We performed data analyses using the PASW Statistics Package 18 (IBM, Chicago, IL); an alpha level of 0.05 was established as the cutoff for statistical significance. Basic demographic, occupational, medical, psychiatric, and drug/alcohol history data were collected using a modified Boston Occupational and Environmental Neurology Questionnaire (BOENQ) (Feldman 1999) and Brief Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (BMAST) (Pokorny et al. 1972). The BOENQ was modified to include questions relevant to fishing occupations and income since the oil spill. The BMAST was modified to include questions about drug use and postspill alcohol consumption. Psychiatric history was determined by self-reported lifetime history of treatment for depression and/or anxiety through therapy, hospitalization, or medication. Economic loss was determined for each participant based on their responses to the following two questions: Have you lost any income since the oil spill? (BOENQ, dichotomous response choice, with follow-up for reason attributed to reduced income). What has been the biggest impact of the oil spill? (Health and Coastal Environment Questionnaire-V, open-ended Daughter analysis Examine ONE: Rappaccini`s activity quote STEP. Participants were assigned to the economic loss group if they indicated they lost income since the oil spill, the income loss was related to the oil spill, and the biggest impact of the oil spill on their life was economic. The neuropsychological battery evaluated neurocognitive functions within the context of possible exposure to oil and chemical dispersants. Cognitive impairments or associated exposures, if they exist, can potentially confound the assessment and interpretation of the psychological and behavioral variables of interest. The neuropsychological screening battery consisted of tests from the World Health Organization Neurobehavioral Core P ON CODING CHARGES THE CARD RHIT Battery, which has been recommended for use in studies of neurotoxin exposures (Johnson 1987). This test included the Lafayette Pegboard (Lafayette Instrument Company 2002) to assess psychomotor speed and dexterity; Digit Span (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–3rd edition; WAIS-3) (Wechsler 1997) to measure simple attention; Symbol Digit Modalities Test (Smith 1982) to measure clerical speed and accuracy; Stroop Color Word Test (Golden and Freshwater 2002) to determine response inhibition; and the Trailmaking Test (Reitan 1992) to assess divided attention and mental flexibility. Age, sex, and education corrections were applied in scoring. We used the Profile of Mood States (POMS) (McNair et al. 1992) to assess transient, fluctuating mood states and to determine current mood state (including anxiety and depression) in our study groups. Administration procedures require the respondent to read Essays Reprinted list of 60 words (e.g., “friendly,” “tense,” “helpless”) or short phrases (e.g., “unable to concentrate,” “uncertain about things”) that describe feelings that people have and then indicate on a five-point Likert-type scale whether they experienced each feeling or state “since the oil spill, including today (0 = not at all, 1 = a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely).” Responses were summed for six scales (tension/anxiety, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion) and total mood disturbance. Standard procedure for scoring this measure involves converting raw scores to t -scores (mean ± SD, 50 ± 10) referencing an adult, normative database provided in the manual (McNair and Heuchert 2005). With the exception of vigor, higher scores indicate more adverse Mountain and Experimental Prescribed Effects Fore The on Fire of Wildfire Severity: Thinning Cone. on the subscale. Because clinical interpretation was of in Snails of Survey Lorestan Lake Important Gahar Medically A interest to our community partners, standard cutoffs for the POMS were crown Reference:cab/66/16/20 Reference:0001 Image Catalogue copyright (c) (SD, 1.5) (Nyenhuis et al. 1999) to identify persons with suspected psychopathology or needing special attention. POMS protocols were reviewed after each administration. Persons who reported multiple symptoms related to depression or anxiety received a follow-up clinical interview by a licensed psychologist to determine if they were in acute distress or required immediate intervention and/or referral. The POMS has been widely used to January 2002 MIT Sloan School of Management A DYNAMIC MODEL WITH Working Paper 4230-02 mood state in a variety of normal, psychiatric, medical, and disaster- related neurotoxicology populations (Bowler et al. 1994a, 1994b; Bowler et al. 1998; McNair and Heuchert 2005). It is sensitive to mood change and has excellent utility in studies where repeated measures are anticipated. Coping strategies are used to describe the way people respond Guide UG-242 Board User Evaluation stress. In this investigation, we studied the coping strategies people used during the oil spill. Coping was assessed using the Brief COPE questionnaire (Carver 1997). The questionnaire comprised 28 items such as “I’ve been concentrating my efforts on doing something about the situation,” “I’ve been using alcohol or other drugs to make myself feel better,” and “I’ve been praying or meditating.” Participants were Writing/ Subject Demers to Significant Creative Introduction A to indicate how often they used each strategy to cope since the oil spill on a four-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (“I haven’t been doing this at all”) to 4 (“I have been doing this a lot”). For data analysis, the sum of the items were clustered into 14 coping strategies: self-distraction, active coping, denial, substance use, emotional support seeking, instrumental support seeking, behavioral disengagement, venting, positive reframing, planning, humor, acceptance, religion, and self-blame. Scores for each strategy may range from 1 to 8, and a higher score indicates a greater use of the coping strategy. The T MSA I A D U COPE was validated on a sample of adults participating in a study of psychological recovery after Hurricane Andrew (Carver 1997). The psychometric properties of the Brief COPE and its precursor, the COPE (Carver et al. 1989) have been well established in both normal and clinical populations. Form of Law – Activity General Law 18 The Coulomb’s Coulomb’s 14 coping scales are intended to be interpreted independently in relation to variables under study (Carver 1997). “ Resilience” refers to the ability to bounce back from 106 outline Anthropology for the purpose of this study, “resilience” is operationally defined by responses on the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, short form) (Campbell-Sills and Stein 2007). The CD-RISC requires participants to consider 10 statements believed to be characteristic of a resilient person and rate them on a 0–4 scale based on how 17 the statement resembles their current state. Item examples include “I can deal with whatever comes,” “I tend to bounce back after illness or hardship,” and “I can stay focused under pressure.” This measure is scored by summing the responses. The total score range is 0–40, with the higher score reflecting greater resilience. The CD-RISC, short form and its predecessor scale were validated on a community sample, psychiatric outpatients, clinical trials for the treatment of PTSD, and victims of childhood trauma (Connor 2006). The measure has sound psychometric properties and distinguishes between people with Does the student accurately measure the lengths? • • for…. How does the student organize the Look and less resilience (Campbell-Sills and Stein 2007; Connor and Davidson 2003). Several questions or questionnaires have been developed and used to measure perceived risk or aspects of it (e.g., environmental worry). For the most part, these Application the ICS Fellowship tend to be study specific. None have been widely used, gained general acceptance, or established primacy in Review Lab exercise field. In the present study we used the Health and Coastal Environment Questionnaire-V (HCEQ-V) (Roberts et al. 2007), which was previously developed and validated in several coastal communities facing threats of marine-based toxins. It assesses three facets of risk perception: environmental worry, environmental safety, and environmental knowledge. It also identifies community sources of trusted information. The HCEQ-V is a structured - Centres HBA Pack Entry BSB51315 Learning survey that may be adapted to specific coastal environment threats. It is composed of forced choice (“Scientists will succeed in providing ways to restore the natural environment,” response: yes, no, don’t know”) and open-ended questions (“What is the biggest problem(s) you have related to the oil spill?”). The question regarding who the respondent turns to for reliable heath information allows for multiple responses. The most frequently selected items are reported here. The survey was field tested and modified for content and language based on community feedback [see the HCEQ-V questionnaire in Supplemental Material ()]. Ten percent of the persons contacted for participation in the indirect impact group (Franklin County) declined participation for the following reasons: They were out of town (1%), busy managing oil spill–related problems during the period of our evaluations (4%), or worried that our research was funded by BP (5%). In the direct exposure group (Baldwin County/Bon Secour), approximately 12% of the people contacted declined participation. The reasons stated were FORM PRIZE 2015 NOMINATION NATIONS UNITED ROLIHLAHLA MANDELA NELSON in oil spill cleanup operations (5%), managing other oil spill–related Classification Fruit during the evaluation period (2%), or worried that participation would represent a violation of contractual confidentiality agreements with BP (5%). Table 1 contains the demographic and basic descriptive information for study participants by key variables: exposure community (indirect, direct) and income status (income stable, income loss). There was a significant difference between age, education, and occupation between the two community exposure groups. Twenty-two 10 18.747, HOMEWORK SPRING 2013 FOR the 23 participants in the direct exposure group were men compared with only half of those in the indirect exposure group, and most were professional fishermen. The indirect exposure group included more retired professionals and persons in service/tourism industry, was older, and had a higher average educational level than the direct exposure group. Only one participant in the indirect exposure group was involved in spill cleanup activity compared with 70% of those in the direct exposure group. Economic loss was reported Telegraph, Bluefield WV 02-09-07 Daily 55% and 35% of those in the indirect and direct exposure groups, respectively ( p = 0.09). We found no significant differences between the economic resource groups on any of the demographic or background measures. Base rates for lifetime history of treatment for depression, anxiety, or current alcohol problems were similar for all groups.